The only health hazard that you're likely to come across is an upset stomach. The best way to avoid this is to make sure that you only drink bottled water, avoid ice and ice-cream and anything that may have been washed in tap water(salad). All fruit should be peeled before consumption.
Women travelling in Turkey may receive more attention than they would in their native country. Turks are friendly and this extra attention may be harmless, however it can cross the line and become harassment. Dressing modestly will help to reduce this risk, as will wearing a ring on your wedding finger.
On paper women share equal rights with men in Turkey, although the reality is that society is male dominated. This said, for a Muslim country Turkey has a surprisingly liberal attitude towards women, and from 1993 - 96 they had their first female Prime Minister, Tansu Ciller. As rule-of-thumb female travellers should be aware that the further they are from Istanbul and the Aegean coast the more conservative things become. Hence when travelling east women will make their lives much easier if they cover their legs and arms(in the north-eastern city of Erzurum women wear the all encompassing chador), and they should think twice before travelling alone. One way of dealing with unwanted attention is to let others know, shouting ayip (shame) usually does the trick.